Bluetooth® Low Energy
Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) is a wireless personal area network technology (WPAN) designed for applications in the healthcare, smart lighting, beacons, security, home entertainment and industrial IoT. BLE is independent of classic Bluetooth and has no compatibility Compared to Classic Bluetooth, Bluetooth Low Energy is intended to provide considerably reduced power consumption and cost. Mobile operating systems including iOS, Android, Windows Phone and BlackBerry, as well as macOS, Linux, Windows 8 and Windows 10, natively support Bluetooth Low Energy.
See below for developments within BLE technology:
Bluetooth® Direction Finding
Introduced in January 2019, Direction Finding enables devices to determine the direction of a BLE signal. Supporting both angle of arrival (AoA) and angle of departure (AoD) methods of signal direction estimation, this feature allows Bluetooth proximity solutions to add directional capabilities that enhance the user experience and Bluetooth positioning systems to achieve centimeter-level accuracy, enabling Bluetooth technology to address the full spectrum of positioning use cases, from common, low-resolution systems to the most precise.
Bluetooth® Mesh Networking
Introduced in July 2017, mesh networking enables the creation of large-scale device networks. It is ideally suited for control, monitoring, and automation systems where hundreds or thousands of devices need to communicate with one another. Created to meet the strict reliability, scalability, and security requirements of commercial and industrial use cases, Bluetooth mesh has quickly become a leading standard for networked lighting control systems, enabling buildings to operate more efficiently and enhance the occupant experience.
Bluetooth® High Speed
Introduced in December 2016, the LE 2M PHY doubles the data rate that can be achieved between Bluetooth Low Energy (LE) devices from the original LE 1M PHY. The LE 2M PHY improves data transfer performance and provides greater spectral efficiency for the growing number of IoT devices that consumers are connecting to their smartphones, including sports and fitness wearables as well as Bluetooth medical devices that need to transmit critical information or administer medication more frequently and with greater accuracy. In return for a doubling of data rate, the LE 2M PHY can achieve a range of approximately eighty percent of the original LE 1M PHY.
Bluetooth® Long Range
Introduced in December 2016, the LE Coded PHY quadruples the range that can be achieved between Bluetooth Low Energy (LE) devices from the original LE 1M PHY, enabling automation systems capable of providing whole home or building coverage. By applying Forward Error Correction (FEC) to Bluetooth transmissions, the LE Coded PHY increases the achievable range without increasing transmit power and allows data recovery at the receiver without the need for retransmission. The LE Coded PHY includes two coding schemes; S=2, which doubles the range while supporting a data rate of 500 kb/s, and S=8, which quadruples the range while supporting a data rate of 125 kb/s.
Bluetooth® LE Audio
Building on 20 years of innovation, LE Audio will enhance the performance of Bluetooth audio, add support for hearing aids, and introduce Bluetooth® Audio Sharing, an innovative new Bluetooth use case with the potential to once again change the way we experience audio and connect with the world around us.
Bluetooth® Extended Advertising
Introduced in December 2016, Extended Advertising added a new approach to advertising on Bluetooth LE designed to dramatically improve both efficiency and reliability when broadcasting large amounts of data. With this introduction, LE Advertising now supports two modes of operation; Legacy Advertising (the original mode) and Extended Advertising. Key highlights of Extended Advertising include increasing the maximum size of advertising data from 31 bytes to 254 bytes, offloading the transmission of advertising data to the 37 data channels, as well as synchronizing the transmission of advertising data between sending and receiving devices.